1. Which of the following were permanent features of Egyptian civilization?A. rulers who claimed to be divinitiesB. the construction of elaborate royal tombsC. the control of foreign trade by the rulersD. All these answers are correct.2. Scholars think that the appearance of a female ruler in EgyptA. represented a change in social attitudes toward women in society.B. signaled a political crisis.C. occurred during periods of prosperity and peace.D. was a normal event, as men and women shared political power.3. During the New Kingdom, EgyptA. tried a religious experiment.B. underwent a short-lived revolution in the arts.C. became a great power, dividing the Near East with the Assyrians and the Hittites.D. experimented with new economic policies.4. Egyptian religion was characterized by all of the following EXCEPTA. the belief in immortality.B. the worship of the ruler.C. a single national deity for the state.D. polytheism.5. Which pharaoh brought about the Amarna revolution?A. AkhenatenB. MenesC. HatshepsutD. Amenemhat6. Which of the following was an aspect of the Amarna revolution in Egypt?A. Egyptian art became more rigid and formalized.B. Egyptian religion took a permanent new direction.C. A polytheistic system of religion emerged.D. Aten was raised to a new level above the other deities.7. The most famous work of Egyptian literature isA. The Epic of Gilgamesh.B. An Argument Between a Man Contemplating Suicide and His Soul.C. the Story of Sinuhe.D. the Hymn to Aten.8. The Instruction of Amenemope belongs to which literary genre?A. tragedyB. novelC. philosophical treatiseD. wisdom literature9. The model for the step pyramid of King Djoser wasA. an original Egyptian design.B. borrowed from the Mesopotamian ziggurat.C. a variation of the earlier pure pyramid design.D. adopted from a Chinese design.10. In Egypt, the building of pyramids occurredA. throughout Egyptian history.B. primarily in the Old Kingdom.C. primarily in the New Kingdom.D. only in the Middle Kingdom.11. What was the cultural significance of the Egyptian pyramid?A. It was a representation of the God Re.B. It was a merely decorative device for the rulers.C. It seemed to embody a constant and eternal order.D. It was used as an administrative center by the ruler and his advisors.12. All of the following are aspects of Hatshepsut’s temple EXCEPT thatA. its central shrine is in the pure pyramid shape.B. it is built with the post-and-lintel style of construction.C. it uses both round columns and square pillars.D. its colonnaded courtyards lead to a hidden sanctuary in a cliff.13. The classical Egyptian style of sculpture did NOT include which of the following?A. left leg forwardB. fists clenchedC. complete nudityD. serene countenance14. Which female pharaoh built a temple at Deir el Bahri, near Luxor?A. HatshepsutB. NefertitiC. MykerinusD. Akhenaten15. Egypt’s outstanding contribution in relief sculpture was theA. ability to depict figures facing straight ahead.B. development of the principles of perspective.C. invention of a canon of proportions for depicting the human figure.D. creation of a vast repertory of poses for portraying human actions.16. What new artistic style was introduced into Egyptian art during the Amarna revolution?A. austere formsB. naturalismC. rigid linesD. perspective17. Persian art was characterized byA. violent and savage images.B. abstract and nonfigurative shapes.C. contemplative themes with less action.D. All these answers are correct.18. The Zoroastrian religionA. taught that the universe was engaged in a cosmic struggle between good and evil.B. advocated puritanical behavior as a way to gain favor in the afterlife.C. had a profound impact on Western philosophy and religion.D. All these answers are correct.19. Egypt’s legacy to the West did NOT includeA. a solar calendar of 360 days, divided into twelve 30-day months, plus five holidays.B. the novel.C. the decorated column.